An Illustrated Timeline of Alexander, Maine 

* THE LAND 13000 YEARS AGO  * EXPLORERS, BATTLES, REBELLION FROM 1000 TO 1774  *  TURNING LAND INTO MONEY FROM 1781 TO 1795  *  PUTTING ALEXANDER ON THE MAP FROM 1785 TO 1808  *             EARLY SETTLERS FROM 1808 TO 1825        *    YEARS OF GROWTH 1830       *     READY OR NOT FOR WAR ~ 1860 TO 1865      



CHAPTER 7 – READY OR NOT FOR WAR ~~~ 1860 - 1865


1860 Alexander’s population was 445.

1861 The Civil War started and 46 men with Alexander connections went to war, 5 never returned.

1863 State Aid to wives and dependant children of soldiers was started

We all make mistakes, at least I do. I suspect that mapmakers and census takers also made occasional mistakes. Some mistakes are easy to figure out like spelling variations. Here I use the common spelling of families. Errors of omission are harder to rectify. That is why an asterisk precedes each name that appears on only one of the two sources. Alexander’s population had peaked in 1850 so by 1860 some houses were unoccupied. Occupants were not necessarily owners of homes.

Following is an alphabetical list of the names that appear on the 1861 map and on the 1860 census. An asterisk before the name indicates it is found only on one source. The road addresses are based on E-911, created in 1997. This list was prepared by John Dudley - 2013

More information on Breakneck, South Princeton Road and Pokey Road (Tuf End) may be found under COMMUNITY LIFE - Neighborhoods. Additionally, under Families one will find more on Tom Abbott, Samuel Berry, Eli T. Sprague, and Manly B. Townsend.

Abbott, T. T. – Thomas T. Abbott was married to Mary Townsend, daughter of the late Maine Senate President Manly B. Townsend, by Jacob Caldwell, Pastor of Unitarian Church in Calais on August 18, 1857. They resided at 1288 Airline Road with their two year-old daughter.

*Addis, Robert – Robert Addis was a Scot, apparently unmarried. He is on the 1860 census, but not the map. The census lists him, Mary Davis and two of her daughters living together. They are in the house marked E. Davis on the map. Addis’s bond for this lot was dated 1857 and he died in 1863.

Averill, A. – Aaron Averill lived on the Robb Hill Road. At home in 1860 were his New Brunswick born wife Sarah, son Sewell and daughters Marinda and Eliza. Eliza in 1859 had married Henry Higgins and he was living with the family, but went off to war. Widow Sarah Averill and divorcee Hugh Griffin filed Marriage Intentions in 1870.

Ayres, S. – Simeon Ayres was born at Calais in 1800. His children were born at Machias, Cooper and Baileyville before he arrived in Alexander before 1860. He lived at 205 South Princeton Road and had moved on by 1870. .

Bailey, D. E. – David Emery Bailey was born in 1798. His parents, Nathaniel and Mary (Frost) Bayley settled at 225 Arm Road, then called Bailey Road. David’s parents died in 1853 and 54 and he and wife Rebecca continued to reside in that house. Today beef cattle graze at this farm and house site.

Bailey, E. - Edmund Bailey, his wife Sarah (Robb) and large family had a fine farm on the Robb Hill Road. After Edmund died in 1865 their son James took over the farm.

Bailey, I. - Isaiah Bailey went off to the Civil War leaving his wife and five children behind. Their home was at 1587 Airline Road on Bailey Hill. In his old age Isaiah lived with his son Jasper.

Bailey, J. - Joseph Bailey, brother of Isaiah and Simeon, married Amanda Matilda Perkins on September 27, 1848. Two years later they were living between 1461 and1587 Airline Road, likely on his brother’s land. In 1860 Robert Clark Brown was living with them at 107 Cooper. Apparently they had no children.

Bailey, S. – Simeon Bailey was a brother of Isaiah and a bachelor when he lived at this isolated homesite. He did marry at age 41 in 1871 to Sarah Berry, age 35. Their only child, Little Harry (1879 - 1882) died young and Sarah was crippled for the rest of her life. MOVED

Berry, H. – Hiram Berry and his wife Mary Hitchings (Gray) Berry were born in New Brunswick, where they met and were married. They moved here to 87 Spearin Road in 1836 after the first child was born. Eight more children were born including Sarah who married Simeon Bailey.

Berry, S. – Samuel Berry is described in the 1860 census as a master mason. He died less than a year before the 1870 census. His wife Cordelia Gray was a sister of John Gray, their nearest neighbor. The Berry home was about a quarter mile south of John’s home, on a road that is completely abandoned. Five New Brunswick born children are listed on the 1860 census of Alexander.

Billings, S. – Stephen Billings, from North Berwick, lived on lot 10 in Alexander, a home reached only by a road from South Princeton. He married William Bonney’s widow Rhoda and helped raise her five children plus their six more. His farm has gone back to woods that have been logged numerous times.

Blaney, J. – James Blaney and Elizabeth Scott married at St Andrews, NB in 1834. About a score of years later they arrived here and settled at 166 Pokey Road, a poor piece of land for farming. Their children were Margaret and Thomas; Tom had recently married Sarah Lyons and their son was born on April 19, 1861.

Bohanon, J. A. – Jones Annaniah Bohanon married Lizzie Bailey in 1853 and soon thereafter built a five bay cape on land he had acquired from his brother John Campbell. Jones was Town Clerk during the 1860 – 70s era. The home site is at 132 South Princeton Road, in a large Blueberry field.

Brown E. – Ephraim Brown married twice, Phebe Farrar and Nancy Cottel. Childbirth killed many women in those days. Ephraim’s first born was Theophilus (1838 – 1862) who died in the Civil War. His last born on, October 19, 1863 carried his brother’s name. Their long time home was 2020 Airline Road; the cellar is visible next to the road.

Brown, F. – Francis Westbrook Brown married James Blaney’s daughter Margaret and built a house on her father’s land, nearer to the Pokey Road. Brown disappeared shortly after this map was made; did he die, go off to war, or run away? Margaret then married John McLaughlin.

Brown, J. – Joel Knight Brown of Alexander and Ellen Orr of Calais were newly weds living at 107 Flat Road. Her brother Peter was with them in 1860. Thomas Edward Brown, the first of their five children, was born in 1861, the year of this map. Michael Brown was Joel’s father.

Brown, M. – Michael Brown was also father of Francis Westbrook, William Henry, Atkins and Robert Clark. His son Fred died young, but Joel’s son Fred lived a long life as a blacksmith at his grandfather’s farm at 38 Fred Brown Road, off the Spearin Road.

Brown, R. C. – Robert Clark Brown was single in 1861. He married Amelia Berry in 1863 and they raised a family at 1409 Airline Road. Robert paid $300 for a substitute during the Civil War. After his children were out of the crib, he spent 17 years working as a lumberman in Washington Territory.

*Brown, W. – William Henry Brown, another of Michael’s sons, and Susan (Hunnewell) had three surviving children by the 1860 census. Their home at 87 Spearin Road still stands.

Card, C. – Charles Card and Eliza (Lamb) with three of their first four children had just moved into the old John Moore place at 204 Old County Road. Lucy was born in 1861. Charles was a Civil War soldier and came home disable. He and Eliza had four sets of twins and maybe 18 children as they moved about Alexander, Crawford and Calais.

*Clark, G. - George Henry Clark and Abigail Brown were married on January 7, 1859. The 1860 census indicated they were living on the Old Cooper Road at a site across the road from Will Frost. Their name is not on the 1861 map. He is the same George H. Clark who resided in TWP 21 (Big Lake Township) when he enlisted in 1864. In 1870 he and Abigail had five children.

*Cline, W. – This name appears on this map at 589 Cooper Road. Other existing records give only a Sarah Caroline Cline wife of Benjamin W. Carlow, both born at Deer Island NB. Members of the Carlow family have resided here for many years.

*Cottell, J. – John F Cottell was 42 in 1860. He probably was living on the Old County Road across from Will Frost. There are two cellars in this blueberry field. He may have lived alone at one or with Clarks next door.

*Cox, C. – Charles Cox, his wife Pricilla and 14 year-old Josiah Hodgen were living on the Arm Road (Crawford Road in 1860. Charles Godfrey was here in 1861 and in later years Aaron Carlow lived here and had a dance hall next door. The place is all grown up today.

Craft, H. A. – Hiram Crafts, his wife Esther (Spearin) and three young children lived east of his father’s place; the site today is in a blueberry field.

Craft, I. P. – Isaac Porter Crafts lived at 102 Tommy Long Road. The house still stands. Isaac and Rebecca were the last two who stayed with the Congregational Church after the Methodist Church was established on Townsend Hill in 1866.

Crowley, J. – John Crowley, like his neighbors, came from Ireland to settle on Breakneck. He and Biddy invited several Irishmen to live in their home, likely all refugees of the potato famine.

*Damon, J. K. – John K. Damon of Dennysville married Elizabeth Gooch of East Machias. The settled in Cooper at 14 Green Hill Road with their eight children. John wanted to live in Alexander, but liked his house and farm. He petitioned the Legislature to have his farm set-off into Alexander. This was done in 1838, but not shown on the map. Damon is not listed in the 1860 Alexander census.

Davis, E. – Edward Davis and his daughter Ellen in 1860 were working across the field at Almeda Townsend’s farm. Their home was about ¼ mile south of 1260 Airline Road, where Robert Addis lived along with Edward’s wife Mary and daughters Emma and Henrietta in 1860.

Davis, W. V. - William Valentine Davis with his wife Lucy were living here with their two young children, Lucy’s sister Matilda and William’s grandfather, William D. Crockett. Crockett had been the first settler on this lot. When Lucy died in 1863, William buried her south of the house, and married Matilda. The site is at 63 Crawford Road.

* Flood, C. W. – Wesley Flood, his wife Mary J. (Burns) and two young children were not listed on the census at their home at 842 Cooper Road, but next door at John Trask’s. Why? Wesley mother Lucy and brother Levi were living with him. The census lists his child born in April 1860 as Levi L, but he actually was Byron Lincoln Flood.

Foley, J. – John Foley was another Irishman who had settled on Breakneck. Like William Gillespie, Foley had a son named Michael who enlisted twice in the Civil War, but this Michael was killed at the Battle of the Crater near Petersburg on July 30, 1864.

*Frost, C. R. – Charles Rodney Frost and Eunice Andrews of Cutler married in 1857 and by 1860 had a son Silas Lafayette. They are not on the map, but may have been living with his parents, Stephen D. and Mary Frost at 1644 Airline, or at the older house in the field south of the new one.

Frost, S. D. – Stephen Decatur Frost would soon march off to war. He would return, safe and sound, to his wife Mary and eight sons at 1644 Airline Road. A 30-year-old idiotic girl also resided there. The post & beam house was taken down in the 1990s with great difficulty.

Frost, S. H. – Simon Harrington Frost was born in Calais in 1821. He and Mary Ann Perkins were married by M. B. Townsend. They along with their four girls and three boys lived at 95 McArthur Road.

*Frost, W. – William Frost and Jane (Pollard), along with their child Willard may have been living at the site east of the Old County Road marked J. Perkins according to census order. They lived here for years after 1861 and today this west half of lot 78 is called the Will Frost Place.

Gillespie, W. – William Gillespie was born in Ireland, married in New Brunswick and came to Maine in 1854 to settle on Breakneck. Their son Michael, born on July 8, 1844 at Miramichi, NB, was in the Civil War. By 1880 the Gillespie family had moved to 565 Cooper Road. Did they hear the ghost?

Godfrey, J. – Joseph Godfrey and his family lived on the Gore on the Alexander side of the Crawford town line. The family would soon move to the unoccupied Dunn Farm on lot 86. The site is north of the Crawford Road.

Godfrey, C. – Charles W. Godfrey was only 15 when his name was associated with the Charles Cox site on the Crawford Road. In 1860 he was living with his parents Joseph and Rachel. He was 18 when he enlisted in the 6th battery, 1st Regiment Maine Mounted Artillery. Later he moved to Vermont.

Gooch, J. - John Gooch lived at 565 Cooper with his wife Eliza and nine children under 21. He came from East Machias with his parents to live on Breakneck. Eliza Jane (Chase) was from TWP #17 (Princeton). It was at his house that, according to oral history, that a peddler died mysteriously and whose ghost haunted the house until Everett and Rowena Bates took it down to get rid of their “guest”.

*Granger, J. – Joseph Granger was a Calais lawyer who loaned money, held mortgages and owned farms, mostly on Breakneck from ca 1860 to ca 1900.

*Gray, J. L. – John Caldwell Gray was a son of Sarah Caldwell and first husband, Daniel Gray. John, a bachelor, lived across from his mother and step-father Asa Libby at 986 Airline Road. He is not on the 1860 census.

*Griffin, H. – Hugh Griffin was in Alexander prior to 1840. He married a woman with three children, had a farm at 24 Pokey Road, fathered two children, had claims on several lots in town and moved around quite a bit. He was not here in 1860 or 1870.

Hammond, J. P. – James Philbrook Hammond, his wife Harriet Lydia (Stephenson) and three young children lived at 51 Arm. Spelling of these names can cause confusion. J. Philbrook Hammon and Harriet Lydic Stevenson are spellings for the same two people.

Hutchings, Mrs. – Eliza Bayley, sister of David on the Arm Road, married Giles Hutchins in 1835. It is likely they built the house that still stands at 151 South Princeton Road. He left home bound for the gold fields of California and died in 1852 while crossing the Isthmus of Panama. The widow was left with five children.

Huff, C. M. – Claudius Huff, as the story goes, moved the three bay cape down off Breakneck Mountain to this site at 311 Arm Road. Today the cape is well hidden by additions. Claudius was a recent widower in 1860 with six children and a hired girl in his home.

Hunnewell, J. - Jonathan Hunnewell came from Durham, just down river from Auburn. He worked at a shipyard in Calais and was sent to Alexander to find suitable ship’s knees. He married Susannah Hall from St. Stephen and settled at 246 South Princeton Road where they raised ten children; two died in the Civil War.

Knight, S. P. – Stillman P. Knight of Baileyville and Lavina Averill on February 24, 1855 by Alexander Town Clerk Belcher W. Tyler. By 1860 they had a son and daughter and had her brother Daniel living with them several hundred feet north of the end of the Berry Road.

*Lamb, S. – Seth Turner Lamb (28), his wife Harriet (26), and sons George A. (5) and Nat (just born) were likely living on lot 85, the former Charles Dunn farm at 329 Arm Road. They were gone by 1861 and today the buildings are gone on this blueberry farm.

Libby, A. – Asa Libby came to 989 Airline Road from St. David Ridge, NB. His wife, the widow Sarah A. (Caldwell) Gray brought several children to Alexander including John, Cordelia (Samuel Berry) and Mary (Hiram Berry). Six of Asa and Sarah’s children were born at St David Ridge.

Little, A. - Andrew Little, wife Nancy and baby John recently had settled at 225 Crawford Road. One cellar in this big blueberry field was for his father David when he moved off Breakneck Mountain.

Little, D. – David Little was born in Scotland in 1798, married Mahitable Scott in New Brunswick, came to Breakneck Mountain in Alexander ca 1845 where they raised their eleven children. David moved off the Mountain to be near his son Andrew and died in 1865.

Loverin, G. - Gardner Loverin, son of Joseph on the Robb Hill Road, married Susan Farrar on October 5, 1858. In 1861 they with a baby son were living at 159 Arm Road with a hired girl and hired man. Shortly after they moved to Princeton.

Lovering, J. - Joseph Loverin lived in Calais until about 1832 when he and Harriet and their two young children moved to the Robb Hill Road, also called the Loverin Road. Nine more children were born. Loverin created a valuable farm from a terribly rough piece of land.

*Lydick, J. – James Godfrey Lydick and John Watson Lydick were sons of Godfrey Lydick and Elizabeth Noddin. They settled on the south side of the Arm Road (now Crawford Road) on the Alexander side of the Crawford town line. Godfrey wanted to live in Crawford so petitioned the Legislature to have his farm set-off into Crawford. April 2, 1859 wad the “moving day”.

Lydick, M. – Michael Lydick and his new wife were settled at 2081 Airline Road, next to the Crawford line, about a mile north from his father’s place. Descendants often leave off the K.

Lyons, G. – Greenwood Lyons his wife Hannah and their nine children lived at 117 McArthur Road. At one time the road carried this family name. Today we find only a cellar beside a field road.

*Moore, A. – Albion Keith Parris Moore, son of John, was in Alexander according to the 1860 census at his family place at 204 Old County Road. Shortly after that the family moved to Steuben where he taught music before enlisting. By 1861 Charles Card was the renter. John Moore and wife Nancy Moholland are both buried on the 20-acre farm.

Perkins, E. – Elisha Perkins’ wife was Rhoda Strout, sister of Solomon, Jr. up the road. They had a year old daughter plus his mother and brother living with then at 1588 Airline Road.

Perkins, J. – John Perkins, his second wife and their nine children lived east of the Old County Road. Today part of the farm grows blueberries and the rest is forest.

Perkins, J. – John Perkins and his second wife (Lucinda Bohanon) were parents of two Civil War soldiers, Charles Augustus and Jasper Hillman. Only Jasper returned to his home at 179 Cooper Road. The home still stands, but the family gravestones were removed years ago.

Perkins, J. J. – John James Perkins and his wife Sally (Sarah) along with their seven children lived at the top of Lanes Hill at 1461 Airline Road. He was a brother of Elisha.

*Perkins, J. – Joseph Perkins, his wife Elizabeth and six children on the 1860 census lived on lot 57. The likely site was 1437 Airline Road, beside his brother John James.

Robb, T. & H. – Brothers Thomas & Hugh lived at the north end of the Robb Hill Road. Hugh was wounded in the Civil War. This family lived in Baileyville at times. This Irish family arrived here as Presbyterians, but converted to Roman Catholicism.

Saw & Shingle Mill – Built and operated by Jesse Stephenson; he also operated a gristmill here.

Scribner, G. – George Stillman Smith Scribner was called Still. His father Samuel died the year he was born, 1830. His mother Phebe, wife Charlotte (Strout), two young children and an orphaned girl from Nova Scotia lived with him at 1886 Airline Road. The house still stands by a blueberry field.

Seamans, S. K. – Samuel K. Seamans and Abigail (Taylor) had six children living at home when at age 39 he volunteered to fight in the Civil War. He left a hired man at 709 South Princeton Road, and Sam returned to father three more children.

Spearin, J. – Jeremiah Spearin (senior) and wife Rhoda (Bailey) had four sons go to war. Their home was at 187 Spearin Road, the road named for the family.

Spearin, J. Jr. – Jeremiah Spearin, Jr. was a Prisoner of War near Richmond, Virginia, was honorably discharged on May 25, 1865 and returned to wife and family at 1283 Airline Road. His barn is part of Lawrence Lord’s Old Time Farm Museum. Jeremiah was twice widowed by 1876.

Spearin, W. – William Spearin, another son of Jeremiah and Rhoda, married Abigail Lyon in 1848, baby Emma died in 1849, son William was born on September 4 1851 and Abigail died. William married Nancy and in 1860 they lived with his parents. Our map shows him at 234 Flat in 1861.

Spearin, J. G. – It was not John Gilman Spearin, another son of Jeremiah, who lived at 1627 Airline Road. John G. lived with his parents and didn’t marry Ellen Davis until 1862. It was John ‘Side Hill’ Spearin who came from Massachusetts who lived there. ‘Side Hill’ from the Civil War.

*Sprague, E. – Eli Thornton Sprague had lived in Cooper for the first decade of his marriage to Hannah Averill, coming to Alexander before 1859. A deed connects this family with lot 83 and in 1881 we find a Mrs. Sprague at 234 Flat Road in 1881, where William Spearin is shown in 1861.

Spring, W. – William Spring was elected Alexander’s Town Clerk in 1867. He issues 18 Certificates of Intentions of Marriage during the next three years. He, his wife Nancy Aspinwall (Brewer) and two of their eight children lived at164 Cooper on Spring Hill, at the corner of the Tommy Long Road.

Stevenson, E. – (note spelling) Elisha Stephenson and Abigail (Bonney) lived at 234 Cooper Road. Unlike his father he was a farmer. Their first born died young and is buried at the Alexander Cemetery. In 1861 they had three surviving children, a hired man and Elizabeth Fish, age 62 (born in Vermont) living in their home.

Stevenson, J. – Jesse Stephenson and his wife Elizabeth Lilly came to 458 Cooper Road from Massachusetts before 1820 with six of their eleven children. He was a farmer and mill owner. Their daughter Caroline married Jedediah Dwelley of Crawford. Their son John W took over the mills.

Stevenson, J. Jr. – Jesse Stephenson, Jr. lived across the road from his father’s mills at 477 Cooper Road (3 Dwelleys Lake Road). Jesse and Sabrina (Knight) had ten children, one named George Whitefield Stephenson, after the great evangelist whose preaching stirred the hearts of the heathens.

Strout, B. A. – Benjamin Adams Strout had the post office, black smith shop and had the first stop on the Airline Stage Coach west of Calais. His second wife was Caroline Huff, a widow. In their household at 1329 Airline Road we find his two children, her two children, their child, a farm laborer, and Fanny Gooch, an insane pauper.

Strout, S. – Solomon Obidiah Strout had built his house about ½ mile south of the road. Sometime after 1850 he used oxen to pull the three bay cape north to 1698 Airline Road. It is said that his wife Lydia baked bread during the journey. Both home sites are in blueberry fields.

Strout, S. O. – Solomon O. Strout, Jr. and bride Adelaide (Smythe) were living in his Uncle Ben Strouts at 1689 Airline Road, across from his parents. .

Taylor, Mrs. - Rachel Taylor was the widow of James Taylor who died in 1856. Living in her home at 739 South Princeton Road were her five children, her mother-in-law Dorcas Brown, and Eddie Jamison, the hired man.

Thistlewood, R. K. – Robert Kendall Thistlewood married Mary, widow of Thomas Bean, in 1841.Two children were with then in 1861, John K, and Robert K who later went off to the Civil War where he was wounded. The family resided at the very end of the McArthur Road; the site today is lost in the woods This family name was also applied to this road.

Townsend, A. S. – Abner Sawyer Townsend, first son of Manly and Almeda Townsend was named for his maternal grandfather. He married Harriet Louise Berry (Hiram’s daughter) in October 1854. Abner was a farmer and Town Clerk while they lived at 290 Flat Road. He became a minister and died at Ellsworth on February 28, 1885.

Townsend, Mrs. M. B. – Almeda Sawyer Townsend, widow of Manly, lived at 73 Cooper Road. This was the most valuable farm in Alexander and is described in the Machias Union; Mrs. Townsend owns a farm of about 300 acres, a little more than a third of which is under cultivation. She raises annually from 80 to 100 tons of hay, very large crops of potatoes and different kings of grain; has a large, well finished and furnished dwelling house, four barns, besides other out-buildings; has, we believe, seven cows, six horses and colts, oxen and young cattle too numerous to mention….

Trask, J. W. H. – John William Henry Trask was born at Eastport in 1816 while the British controlled that place. He came to Alexander with his widowed mother before 1840 and she married Paul Morse. Paul and Mary Ann died in the mid 1850s. John was a bachelor and head of a household at 750 Cooper Road in 1860. The occupants included two unmarried women and Wesley Floods family.

Tyler, B. W. – Belcher W. Tyler lived at his father’s place at 353 Cooper Road, Tylers Corner, where the Arm Road begins. His name is misspelled Taylor on the 1860 census. He had a post office and was Town Clerk at times. He was born in New Brunswick and his wife Abbie Bathsheba Crane was born in Nova Scotia. Their third child was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, but all the later children were born in Alexander, where Belcher died in 1889.

*Ward, J. [was this John C. Ward of Meddybemps] or *Waid, J. [John B. Waid of Eastport] – This name appears north of the school on Breakneck. Appears to be Waid on map. nfi

Whitney, H. P. – Henry Payson Whitney was born in Massachusetts, but came to Maine to marry Margaret Bohanon, daughter of Ananiah and Amelia Bohanon. By 1861, Amelia was buried east of the home, Ananiah was in Minnesota and Henry, Margaret and six children were living in the family home. Soon they would follow Ananiah west.

                                    Click here for biographical sketches of Civil War soldiers and Sailors